Obesity is  a chronic multisystemic disease modulated by neural and hormonal factors beyond one’s personal control

Weight is controlled via a multi-level complex system involving:

1) Gut hormones

2) Adipose tissue hormones

These hormones input into the brain to affect hunger, sensory perception,

cognition, emotion and behavior



  • Orexigenic and anorexigenic signals are sent to other regions of the brain from 2nd order neurons including – Forebrain, hindbrain, amygdala, brainstem, dorsal vagal complex (DVC), nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS), lateral hypothalamus (LH)
  • The decision to eat is impacted by :

 Endogenous drives (hunger and satiety hormones)

 Environmental cues such as palatable or novel foods or predator exposure when searching

 Highly palatable foods overriding satiety signals

 Hunger-related behavior, perception, emotions and cognition

  • Further affected by

 Reward, motivation, learning, memory

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